धर्म और दर्शन

राघवेन्द्र कुमार ”राघव”-


……प्रधान संपादक…… …इण्डियन वॉयस 24…


प्राचीन धर्म ग्रन्थ कहते है ” जो धारण करने योग्य हो ” वह धर्म है | लेकिन आज के परिप्रेक्ष्य में धर्म आडम्बर से ज्यादा कुछ नहीं | हम किसी भी धर्म की आलोचना , अच्छाई या बुराई में नहीं पड़ना चाहते | लेकिन इतना जरुर है कि जब कोई धर्म के नाम पर इंसानों का बंटवारा करता है , धर्म के सीने में खंजर घोपने का काम करता है | धर्म में निष्ठा छिपी है , यही निष्ठा धर्म को मानने न मानने का आधार है | श्रीमद्भगवदगीता में भगवन् कहते हैं –

सर्वस्व चाहं हृदिसन्निविष्टो मत्तः स्मृतिर्ग्यानमपोहनम् च |

वेदैश्च सर्वेरहमेव   वेद्योवेदांतकृद्वेदविदेव चाहम् ||

अर्थात मै ही सब प्राणियों के ह्रदय में अंतर्यामी रूप से स्थित हूँ तथा मुझसे ही स्मृति , ज्ञान और अपोहन ( विचार के द्वारा बुद्धि में रहने वाले संशय , विपर्यय आदि दोषों को हटाने का नाम ‘अपोहन’ है |) होता है और सब वेदों द्वारा मैं ही जानने के योग्य ( सर्व वेदों का तात्पर्य परमेश्वर को जानने का है , इसलिए सब वेदों द्वारा ”जानने के योग्य ” एक परमेश्वर ही है | ) हूँ तथा वेदांत का कर्ता और वेदों को जानने वाला भी मै ही हूँ ||

अब अगर ईश्वर एक ही है , तो विभिन्न रूपों में भगवान को मानकर हम आपस में क्यों लड़ रहे है | धर्म के नाम पर झगड़ना बेवकूफी है | इंसानों में धर्म , क्षेत्र के नाम पर बंटवारा केवल मन का भ्रम है | सारा संसार एक ही परमपिता की संतान है | धर्म क्या है ? ऐसा कहने वालों की कमी नहीं है और होनी भी नहीं चाहिए | इसके पीछे कुछ तथ्य हैं | आज तक जो धर्म हमें बताया गया , वो तो समाज की जड़े काटने पर तुला है | जिसे हमने धर्म समझा है उसने ऊँच-नीच की चौड़ी खायी तैयार कर दी | इंसानों को धर्म के नाम से चिढ़ हो गयी कारण यही कि धर्म के ठेकेदारों ने उसे विक्रय की वस्तु माना | किसी भी धर्माचार्य ने हमें धर्म का वास्तविक अर्थ नहीं बताया | किसी भी आधुनिक ग्रन्थ ने सत्य को स्वीकार नहीं किया |

हम अक्सर धर्म ग्रंथों में लिखी हुई बातों को समझने में भूल कर बैठते हैं | यह भूल हमें धर्म मार्ग से हटाकर कभी – कभी अधर्म की ओर भी लिए जाती है | भारतीय परिदृश्य में एक बात तो साफ़ है , यहाँ धर्म ग्रंथों पर जो भी टीका , टिप्पणी की गयी वो कही न कहीं व्यक्तिवाद से प्रेरित रहीं | इस तरह हम जो जानकारी चाहते थे उससे वंचित रह गये | अब श्रीमद्भगवद्गीताके इस श्लोक को ही देखते हैं –

श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वानुष्ठितात |

स्वभावनियतं कर्म कुर्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम ||

अर्थात अच्छी प्रकार आचरण किये हुए दूसरे के धर्म से गुणरहित भी अपना धर्म श्रेष्ठ है ; क्योंकि स्वभाव से नियत किये हुए स्वधर्म रूप कर्म को करता हुआ मनुष्य पाप को प्राप्त नहीं होता |

अब यदि इस श्लोक के भावार्थ पर नजर डालें तो स्पष्टतः एक ऐसा तथ्य निकल कर आता है जो धर्मों के बीच विरोधाभास को दिखाता है | लेकिन क्या वास्तव में महात्मन श्री कृष्ण ने धार्मिक विद्वेष की बात की होगी ? नहीं उनके कहने मा मतलब ही अलग रहा होगा ! जहाँ तक हमारी छोटी बुद्धि समझती है , भगवान का कथन किसी आधुनिक धर्म की ओर कतई नहीं रहा होगा , क्योंकि उस समय तो सनातन धर्म ही था | जो सर्व मान्य आर्यों का धर्म था | श्रीकृष्ण ने अर्जुन से उस धर्म की बात कही होगी जो वर्ण व्यवस्था के आधार पर था | आप सब जानते है कि अर्जुन ने कुरुक्षेत्र में अपने सगे सम्बन्धियों को देखकर हथियार डाल दिए थे | अर्जुन युद्ध करने से मना कर रहे थे | ऐसे में विष्णु अवतार श्री कृष्ण ने उनसे ” क्षत्रिय धर्म ” के आदर्शों की बात कही और दूसरे धर्मों ( ब्राह्मण ‘ वैश्य और शूद्र ) को इस दशा में कमतर कहा | अब यदि सीमा पर फौजी लड़ाई से इंकार करे तो यह सैनिक धर्म के विपरीत है |

यजुर्वेद में अध्याय ३६ के १७वें सूक्त में कहा गया है कि ”चारों ओर से शांति बरस रही है | स्वर्ग लोक में भी शांति की वर्षा हो रही है | अंतरिक्ष में भी शांति व्याप्त है | पृथ्वी पर रची बसी सभी चीजों से शांति बरस रही है | पानी जो कण-कण में समाया हुआ है , बड़ी ही शांति से जीवों को पाल रहा है | कभी भी पानी के मन में ईर्ष्या -द्वेष , शत्रुता या साम्प्रदायिकता का भाव नहीं आया और न ही कभी पानी ने अपने जलधर्म  से विरोध ही किया है (अर्थात पानी ने मगरमच्छ और मछली दोनों को ही बराबर स्थान दिया है ) | वह तो सभी जीवों को आश्रय देकर जल धर्म का निर्वाह कर रहा है | जल शांति प्रदान कर रहा है  ” |

लेकिन आज धर्म के नाम पर अशांति , जिहाद , धार्मिक स्थलों में तोड़-फोड़ , आगजनी और भी न जाने क्या-क्या हो रहा है | मानवधर्म को भूल इंसान जाने किस अंधे कुँए की ओर जा रहा है | अरे जब आगे अँधेरा है तो स्वाभाविक सी बात है कि शक्ति और बुद्धि का प्रयोग व्यर्थ है , वहाँ कुछ भी मिलने वाला नहीं है |लेकिन हमारे शास्त्रों में एक सूक्ति है कि ” हर अँधेरे के पार रौशनी होती है ”| लोग इस उदाहरण को आगे रखकर बुरे कर्मों को भी अच्छी राह ले जाने का प्रयास करते है | परन्तु भूल जाते हैं कि अँधेरा चाहे जितना सघन हो लेकिन रोशनी को रोक पाने में वह असमर्थ है , कोई न कोई किरण तो पार आ ही जाती है अर्थात लक्ष्य स्पष्ट हो जाता है | हाँ यह हो सकता है कि लक्ष्य अच्छी तरह से दृष्टिगोचर न हो किन्तु अंधकारमय नहीं होगा |लक्ष्य को पाने के लिए प्रज्ञा (ज्ञान) की भी जरुरत होती है और प्रज्ञा शांति से आती है | अतः शांति ही कर्म , लक्ष्य और धर्म का आधार है | जो शांति में खलल डालता है वह धर्म नहीं है |

लेकिन अफ़सोस हमारे पाखंडी धर्मवेत्ताओं ने श्लोकों की अनुचित व्याख्या कर हम मनुष्य रुपी प्राणियों को आपस में लड़ने का मंच तैयार कर दिया | इसके पीछे इनकी मंशा यही रही होगी जो हमें गुलाम बनाने वाले अंग्रेजों की थी | हम धर्म के नाम पर लड़कर दिन-प्रतिदिन पीछे ही खिसक रहे है | ऐसे में जरुरत है धर्म के सही ज्ञान की , जिससे हम आपसी मतभेदों को भुलाकर प्रगति की ओर बढ़ सके |

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